Editore"s Note
Tilting at Windmills

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January 3, 2008
By: Kevin Drum

ARE YOU HAPPY?....Does a higher income make you happier? If I understand Daniel Kahneman correctly, the answer (according to a decade of research) is no. Higher income makes you more satisfied, but it doesn't make you happier:

Over several years we asked substantial samples of women to reconstruct a day of their life in detail. They indicated the feelings they had experienced during each episode, and we computed a measure of experienced happiness: the average quality of affective experience during the day....This was the first of many such findings: income, marital status and education all influence experienced happiness less than satisfaction, and we could show that the difference is not a statistical artifact.

....Experienced happiness, we learned, depends mainly on personality and on the hedonic value of the activities to which people allocate their time. Life circumstances influence the allocation of time, and the hedonic outcome is often mixed: high-income women have more enjoyable activities than the poor, but they also spend more time engaged in work that they do not enjoy; married women spend less time alone, but more time doing tedious chores. Conditions that make people satisfied with their life do not necessarily make them happy.

Hmmm. This makes sense to me. I would say, for example, that I'm quite satisfied with my life — mainly because I can't think of too many specific ways in which I could materially improve it. I have a job I like, a wife I love, a nice house, no money worries, etc. But am I happy? That's a purely subjective measure that, in my experience, has only a modest correlation with my material satisfaction. Basically, I'm a big believer that above a certain income level, long-term subjective happiness is mostly (though of course not entirely) a function of brain chemistry.

If you're looking for a political angle here, try answering this question: which candidate winning tonight would make you most satisfied? Which would make you happiest? Is there a difference?

Via Tyler Cowen.

Kevin Drum 2:06 PM Permalink | Trackbacks | Comments (49)

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Comments

Absolutely, sir. Absolutely.

Posted by: Norman Rogers on January 3, 2008 at 2:15 PM | PERMALINK

Interesting question. Though I find a state of "happiness" to be fleeting, off the top of my head, I'd say that Edwards would satisfy me but Biden and/or Dodd would actually make me happy.

Posted by: Tim (the other one) on January 3, 2008 at 2:16 PM | PERMALINK

According to the Big-Five model of personality, capacity for happiness is largely determined by only two of the five personality axes. Scoring towards the 'happy' end of one of those two axes indicates the possibility of sustained happiness. Scoring towards the 'happy' end on BOTH means you'll probably have a sunny disposition your entire life.

Sadly, only 11% of the population scores highly on both...

Posted by: EthanJ on January 3, 2008 at 2:25 PM | PERMALINK

I would prefer Natalie Portman to any of these guys anytime, both for satisfaction and happiness.

Posted by: gregor on January 3, 2008 at 2:26 PM | PERMALINK

Money makes life easier. So does intelligence. But neither are a major factor in happiness, IMHO.

Posted by: kim on January 3, 2008 at 2:27 PM | PERMALINK

"Every night and every morn
Some to misery are born,
Every morn and every night
Some are born to sweet delight.

Some are born to sweet delight,
Some are born to endless night."

--William Blake

I'd love to be able to say that Life is what one makes it, but I can't. Some are born to endless night without a damn thing they can do about it.

Posted by: Jeffrey Davis on January 3, 2008 at 2:32 PM | PERMALINK

Lots of philosophers have attacked the claim that feelings of happiness are (solely) what is normatively significant in well-being. I suspect that things like desire-satisfaction and certain substantive goods (e.g., deep personal relationships, autonomy, pursuing individually meaningful projects, et cetera), are much more central to a conception of what makes a good life. So, it's worth being very careful about drawing too many practical implications from these results.

Posted by: /a on January 3, 2008 at 2:36 PM | PERMALINK

Money makes life easier. So does intelligence. But neither are a major factor in happiness, IMHO.

Money is the only thing that matters in the modern age. This notion that "money doesn't matter" is grounded in a mystical belief that the world can be navigated without the necessary means to do so by some form of "barter" and whatnot.

Try getting across this country without using a freeway or an airplane. Try doing this without a credit card and an identification card. See how far the kindness of strangers gets you. And then report back to us when you're cold, wet, footsore, morose, lonely and tired from running away from packs of wild dogs.

Money is king. Everything else is just a denial of the reality of modern life.

The only politician who guarantees happiness is the one who WON'T raise taxes. Alas, Rudy is not going to win tonight. That makes me sad. But tomorrow is another day, and I will be campaigning for him here in New Hampshire though the weekend.

Posted by: Norman Rogers on January 3, 2008 at 2:37 PM | PERMALINK

Does Rush or Hannity or even Coultier seem happy.They have wealth and they seem quite unhappy.These kind of people get the It's my money and will go to any lenghts to keep all of it under there mattress even though they have more money then they can spend in the rest of there lifetimes.And that makes me happy.

Posted by: john john on January 3, 2008 at 2:40 PM | PERMALINK

I was dumbfounded the other day to hear on the news that a recent Gallop poll on happiness/satisfaction finds that 8 in 10 Americans describe themselves as 'satisfied' in
their personal lives with a solid majority saying they are 'very satisfied.'

"PRINCETON, NJ -- As Americans look ahead to the new year and reflect on the year past, a recent Gallup Poll finds the public generally content with their own lives. Most Americans say they are generally happy, with a slim majority saying they are "very happy." More than 8 in 10 Americans say they are satisfied with their personal lives at this time, including a solid majority who say they are "very satisfied." This personal satisfaction level contrasts sharply with the low level of satisfaction Americans express with the way things are going "in the United States at this time." Republicans, married adults, those residing in higher income households, parents of young children, those attending church weekly, and whites are most likely to say they are satisfied and happy at this time."

Gallop Poll

Posted by: nepeta on January 3, 2008 at 2:49 PM | PERMALINK

which candidate winning tonight would make you most satisfied? Which would make you happiest?

Are we talking Democrat or Republican? 'Cause I think the "satisfied" (smirk) part will be about watching the GOP, whereas the happiness will be all about our team. That's because I'm not going to be suicidal if my guy doesn't win.

I'd love to be able to say that Life is what one makes it, but I can't. Some are born to endless night without a damn thing they can do about it.

Jeffrey's right. Not to be the bleeding heart who pees in the punchbowl (I put those metaphors through the Kitchenaid, huh?), because this is an interesting question worth thinking about, but we might always keep in mind that our even asking/having time to explore the question implies a level of privilege few in the world share.

Posted by: shortstop on January 3, 2008 at 2:50 PM | PERMALINK

Well, now it becomes (more) obvious why Norman Rogers is the embittered unhappy soul that his rants often express.

Anyway, as Kevin said, above a certain level, money is not what brings satisfaction or happiness to peoples' lives. I've been relatively poor and happy and relatively rich and unhappy.

And as Blake and Kevin said, it's largely a matter of brain chemistry. My wife, for instance, has wonderful brain chemistry, I don't.

(That has been borne out recently by studies at the U. of Minnesota, among others, on "temprament.)

That being said, I'd suggest that brain chemistry is not unmalleable. Obviously various drugs can change it, some more or less permanently. Also various lifestyle choices can affect (negatively or positively) the gene expression of neurochemicals.

I'm fairly certain it's a bell curve again, with those at the extremes either unchangeably happy, under nearly all circumstances, or doomed to despair, even in the face of relative life success.

But for most people, choices can be made that will move them along the continuum, one way or the other. And from everything I have seen, both in terms of scientific research and life experience, the pursuit of money and material wealth as a singular goal, not only doesn't guarantee happiness, it seems most often to guarantee dissatisfaction.

Your mileage may vary of course...

Posted by: Charles on January 3, 2008 at 2:50 PM | PERMALINK

You should read Aristotle's Nicomachean Ethics, esp. bk. 1, where he takes on all these questions and gives some interesting answers to them.

Basically, his view is that you are happy when you are actively engaged in fulfilling activities, where fulfilling means 'noble and excellent'.

Posted by: lampwick on January 3, 2008 at 2:56 PM | PERMALINK

Btw, Aristotle also says that an Edwards victory would be the most satisfying, but that a Obama victory would ultimately make one the happiest.

Posted by: lampwick on January 3, 2008 at 2:57 PM | PERMALINK

I don't agree that happiness consists of a surplus of joy over sorrow. Happiness is a calm acceptance and enjoyment of reality exactly as it is, like a mathematician calmly working out equations.

Posted by: Gary Sugar on January 3, 2008 at 3:05 PM | PERMALINK

Higher income makes you more satisfied, but it doesn't make you happier:

Generally true, but having little or no income can make you absolutely miserable.

Posted by: Stefan on January 3, 2008 at 3:23 PM | PERMALINK

NIMH reports that:

* Approximately 20.9 million American adults, or about 9.5 percent of the U.S. suffer from mood disorders in a given year.

* Major depressive disorder affects approximately 14.8 million American adults, or about 6.7 percent of the U.S. population age 18 and older in a given year.

So, the Gallop Poll rather accurately reflects the combined figures given by NIMH, or 16.2 percent of the American population suffers from some sort of depressive illness in any given year. Those of you who have pointed the finger at brain chemistry as the deciding factor in experienced happiness/satisfaction appear to be correct.

Posted by: nepeta on January 3, 2008 at 3:25 PM | PERMALINK

David Lee Roth says it best.

"Money can't buy happiness, but it can buy you a yacht big enough to pull up right alongside it."

Posted by: Buford on January 3, 2008 at 3:32 PM | PERMALINK

Is “make you most satisfied” equivalent to “give you the most satisfaction”? What would give me the most satisfaction would be that no Dem gets a first-ballot victory and the delegates settle on Al Gore as a compromise candidate, who then trounces whoever the Rs manage to nominate.

What would give me the most happiness is that (1) the United States withdraws its troops from Iraq with all deliberate speed, and (2) the Iraqis figure out a way to get along with each other. Several candidates have promised to deliver the first point but the second is, in the words of President Lincoln, “far above our poor power to add or detract.”

Posted by: Joel Rubinstein on January 3, 2008 at 3:40 PM | PERMALINK

stefan, the Gallop poll I linked to at 2:49 PM has a breakdown for satisfaction/happiness results linked to income level and a bunch of other parameters. Interesting.

Posted by: nepeta on January 3, 2008 at 3:41 PM | PERMALINK

My late Dad, a wise man, used to say
"Money doesn't bring happiness, but it does bring a more pleasant form of misery."

Posted by: Sock Puppet of the Great Satan on January 3, 2008 at 3:43 PM | PERMALINK

"which candidate winning tonight would make you most satisfied? Which would make you happiest?"

The happiest: the one who implements the most progressive agenda, in both domestic and foreign policy.

The most satisfied: the one who does the most to cripple the Republicans, giving them the generation out of power that they so richly deserve.

Posted by: Sock Puppet of the Great Satan on January 3, 2008 at 3:54 PM | PERMALINK

What would make me happy? Winning the Powerball Lottery when it is in the multiple tens of millions of dollars range. I'd still take home a buttload of money after taxes, still have enough to pay off my parent's mortgage, my sister's mortgage, etc, AND still have enough to quit working and almost disappear.

OK, it wouldn't be the money, per se, that would be making me happy but the independence that it gave me, the power over all aspects of my own life. I would be able to buy a big chunk of great land in any state or country I desired and plunk down there away from everyone. I would then be able to fiddle with woodworking, horseback riding, drawing and painting, video-gaming, internetting, etc, to my heart's content and not EVER have to work a job again. THAT is happiness.

Posted by: Praedor Atrebates on January 3, 2008 at 3:58 PM | PERMALINK

I've only been fleetingly happy a couple of times in my life, having a tendency to moodiness. But I have a great sense of fulfillment, of a life truly lived, without having had tons of $.

Posted by: bob h on January 3, 2008 at 4:02 PM | PERMALINK

For those who worry about having enough to eat, a place to sleep, or how they are going to make it through another ten-hour-back-breaking-day tomorrow, a little bit more money goes a long way to providing some small satisfaction.

I would be happy if Iowans boycotted the caucuses. I prefer the candidates, their big money contributors and the MSM pundits suffer unhappiness and dissafisfaction from the electorate.

Posted by: Brojo on January 3, 2008 at 4:03 PM | PERMALINK

If you're not sure how you'll be able to pay all your bills this month or can't put food on the table, it's virtually impossible to be as happy as someone who does have the rent covered and a full fridge.

Posted by: lux on January 3, 2008 at 4:08 PM | PERMALINK

Who said,

"Money can't buy you love, but it puts you in a great bargaining position!"

Was it Oscar Wilde or Woody Allen?

Posted by: royalblue_tom on January 3, 2008 at 4:08 PM | PERMALINK

It would make me ecstatic if INKBLOT were to win the democratic caucus tonight.

But since Kevin has not coordinated him entering into the primaries I remain unhappy.

Posted by: optical weenie on January 3, 2008 at 4:12 PM | PERMALINK

Posted by: Praedor Atrebates on January 3, 2008 at 3:58 PM

"I would then be able to fiddle with woodworking, horseback riding, drawing and painting, video-gaming, internetting, etc, to my heart's content and not EVER have to work a job again. THAT is happiness."

For the common working man, Preador comes closest. I contend that MOST people in America have absolutely no clue what real happiness is because we life a collective lifestyle that precludes it. We are acheivement success, which, if your work and plan well, can indeed lead to contentment. I find often that when I conclude a lengthy effort of some type, I am indeed profoundly satisfied with my work. However, happiness, which is nearly as philosophically as elusive as Love, is much more different to measure. Back onto the subject, I contend that Time is what most of us are looking for. Time to relax, Time to Hobby, Time away from stress, Time for the sake of Time. Nearly everything the common man does, if it doesnt cost money, it costs time. For most poverty-stricken families, it's often tradeoffs of that type, money for convenience(time). To put it politically, the candidate who saves the most time for the avg person would be the one who makes us the happiest. Personally, streamlining the DMV, simplifying taxday, put emissions-testing to the supply side and encouraging raises/discouraging inflation would indeed save plenty of time. Also someone needs to get the corporate money-extraction schemes under control. I can't tell you how many times I've had to put in an extra 5-10 hours a week cause some smiling shark-in-a-suit held out his hand for one thing or another that I couldn't avoid. Time is happiness. Money is simply how we measure Time now.

P.S. Norman Rogers, please, keep your selfish, ignorant, treasonous, traitorous greed down to a dull roar. Intelligent minds are trying to write here.

Posted by: Aaron on January 3, 2008 at 4:24 PM | PERMALINK

Posted by: Praedor Atrebates on January 3, 2008 at 3:58 PM

We started working toward that chunk-of-land goal as soon as we got to the first billet, ten days after we got married. Taking a chunk out of those puny little O-1/GS-3 checks was tough, especially once we started breeding. But we did it, and now we have that place to get away and a nice co-op in the city. Nothing that will make the style pages, but nice, comfortable and manageable. And best of all, I pay out less than a thousand bucks a month on housing and transportation costs.

I'm quite content, sometimes to the point of hysterical glee. It's my payoff for two decades of sacrifice and working two jobs and taking call every freakin' holiday.

Posted by: Blue Girl, Red State (aka G.C.) on January 3, 2008 at 4:26 PM | PERMALINK

I think money does bring happiness, up to a point. But once you're making enough to feel safe and secure, eat well, stay healthy, get a good education, and raise a family, anything more rapidly brings diminishing returns. This is why I support progressive taxation--money is worth less to those that have more of it.

I would feel proudest if Obama won, but since I'm blessed enough to have my basic needs met, I don't think any candidate would make me more happy or satisfied with life. I think the Democrats do a better job expanding the economy fairly to give the same opportunity to all Americans, so I do think any of them would increase the national level of happiness.

And they tend to blow people up in other countries only when it's absolutely necessary, so yeah, I think they would do a pretty good job increasing happiness globally, too.

Posted by: Nick on January 3, 2008 at 4:33 PM | PERMALINK

Edwards, for both satisfaction and happiness. And it's been that way since 2003.

Posted by: Jame on January 3, 2008 at 4:34 PM | PERMALINK

There are studies showing that money does make people happier, up until about $50,000 a year. After the basics are taken care of, more money has little effect.

Posted by: anandine on January 3, 2008 at 4:47 PM | PERMALINK
Does a higher income make you happier? If I understand Daniel Kahneman correctly, the answer (according to a decade of research) is no. Higher income makes you more satisfied, but it doesn't make you happier

Its pretty clear that some bizarre operationalization of each "satisfaction" and "happiness" is being used here, since with any reasonable definition of the words this would be contradictory.

Its not really clear what operationalization of either is being used here: no definition of what is meant by "satisfaction" is provided, though the various phrasings suggests that its measured as a one-time, point-in-time, retrospective self-evaluation of the quality of one's life. And the definition given for happiness is a summary that doesn't make clear the actual operationalization used. Without looking back to the original research and reviewing the actual operationalizations used in detail, its hard to say what (if anything) this result actually says.

As best as I can tell from what's in it, it mostly says that that money has a bigger effect on how pleased you are with your overall position in the world than on how pleased you are with immediate events. Which is not an uninteresting result, but at the same time isn't a surprising result.

Posted by: cmdicely on January 3, 2008 at 5:06 PM | PERMALINK

It's pretty ludicrous to make a distinction between satisfied in this context.

If I'm a boss or a teacher and someone hands me a well-done assignment, I'm satisfied and there's no need to get into whether that truly makes me "happy."

But if I'm a human being living my life and everything is as it should be--I'm rich, well cared for, I have a partner, I have great children, I have a beautiful house--then I'm both satisfied and happy (unless I'm some sort of crazy neurotic, in which case I belong in a loony bin).

What on earth kind of distinction are you trying to make? Is the distinction you're trying to make between "contentment" and "gleeful elation"???

I think this is just one more of those rich-person navel-gazing stories--either the original research and story, or your own take on it.

That includes the crap about the things that tear people down and make them merely "satisfied"--obnoxious jobs, additional home duties, etc. Those are brought into the piece merely to kiss up to all of the current cliches about the Hard-Working Endless-Hours Meritocracy of Today, which you so obviously buy into.

People with money can determine the shape and context of their life. They can quit their overpaid mid-level editing jobs in New York, sell the studio or small apartment that's swelled in value to $500,000 to $1,000,000 or more, and retire to somewhere inexpensive where they can spend the rest of their lives painting pictures and living in a perfectly nice and roomy American four-square house.

If people have bad jobs and additional home duties they hate, it sounds to me as if they are plain old Unhappy. Maybe it would be better to ask, are you happy at home, happy at work, etc., and not worry about the trivia about some meaningless word choice (happiness versus satisfaction) that an individual chooses to use at various particular moments in the day.

I'm unhappy and I'm unsatisfied--And you're not helping!!

Posted by: Anon on January 3, 2008 at 5:09 PM | PERMALINK

Hmmmm....I bet if Bill Gates walked a year in my economic shoes and I walked a year in his, he wouldn't be satisfied or happy. I, on the other hand, would be very, very, happy and satisfied to be in his shoes....

Posted by: JerseyMissouri on January 3, 2008 at 5:16 PM | PERMALINK

But tomorrow is another day, and I will be campaigning for him here in New Hampshire though the weekend.
Posted by: Norman Rogers

Somebody inform Rogers's mental health care facility of where he's escaped to. It must be two days at least since he's been on his meds.

Posted by: DJ on January 3, 2008 at 5:29 PM | PERMALINK

Higher income, upto a point, enables a more fulfilling life. The argument presented is dangerous in that people may use it to press for a decrease in minimum wage. (I don't know what Kahneman's background is, but he may be just be finding excuses for the elite liberals ...) Good books to read, if one isn't in the mood for dipping into Aristotle, are Amartya Sen's "Inequality Reexamined" and "Development as Freedom".

Posted by: RS on January 3, 2008 at 5:55 PM | PERMALINK

Obama winning would make me most satisfied, because of what a black man (however "inauthentic" by stereotypical American civil rights traditions) winning a primary means about how far this country has come. For Hillary to win is close.

Posted by: Neil B. on January 3, 2008 at 6:10 PM | PERMALINK

I'm not completely convinced by the claim "Experienced happiness, we learned, depends mainly on personality and on the hedonic value of the activities to which people allocate their time."

Based on my life experiences, I'd say a vast part, perhaps the bulk, of being happy is having substantial control over your life.

Unfortunately for most people, their lives consist of a series of transactions whereby they willingly give up this control. It starts with having children, and continues through upgrading to a "better" car or house as soon as the possibility arises of having fully paid off the existing model.

On the one hand, this is tragic; on the other hand, it's not as if anyone forced these people to act as they did --- you have the god-given right to behave like a short-sighted ignoramus, and the world has the god-given right to let you then live the (rather less happiness filled) life that results.

Posted by: Maynard Handley on January 3, 2008 at 8:04 PM | PERMALINK

OK, I'm going to redefine this since we are talking about subjective intangibles anyhow.

1) Satisfy will now mean "Fail to threaten or worsen my physical existence" and
2) Happy will now mean "Makes me feel confident that policy changes most important to me will be sincerely attempted"

Here goes, the most likely to threaten or worsen my physical existence:
Mike Huckabee and Ron Paul (both re: economics)
Don't vote for them. The gold standard or the "FairTax" will cause a depression. Thumbs down. Don't go there. Don't be fooled by their earnestness and charisma.
The rest of the Republican candidates.
Don't vote for them. They are hot-heads that will bomb anything that moves, THEN cause a depression.
Hillary. She'll bomb people just to show she's not weak-despite what Bill says, then we'll have a depression, but not as deep.

Here goes, the ones that make me feel confident that policy changes most important to me will be sincerely attempted:
Any of the Dem candidates, then the only R being McCain.

Posted by: Doc at the Radar Station on January 3, 2008 at 9:36 PM | PERMALINK

high-income women have more enjoyable activities than the poor, but they also spend more time engaged in work that they do not enjoy;

What the fuck does that mean?

Posted by: craigie on January 3, 2008 at 10:58 PM | PERMALINK

Folks, I don't have a dog in this fight. But if you're even a bit serious about checking out your brain chemistry, pick up the book "The Edge Effect", by Dr. Eric Braverman. His clinical studies have determined correlations between, hmm, call it life characteristics (success in work, relationships, spirituality, etc.) and neurotransmitter levels. The second self-assessment in his book (about 100 yes/no questions) measures neurotransmitter deficiencies, with amazing accuracy for a non-lab test. In my case, it exactly tracked a $$3,500 brain scan.

I've passed "The Edge Effect" on to a bunch of people, and many have said it changed their lives--insomnia went away, chronic fatigue syndrome went away, developed the ability to meditate, etc. If you can't afford to buy it, get it from the library and photocopy the second self-assessment. Could make as much difference in your internal state as an Obama or Edwards presidency--maybe more.

Posted by: vorkosigan1 on January 3, 2008 at 11:09 PM | PERMALINK

Asking someone if they are happy has always seemed like an impossible-to-answer question for any poll respondent. Moods can change from hour to hour—and day to day. Also, there is social pressure to give an upbeat response. Who wants to admit that they are not happy?

I have always tried to look at the subject of happiness from a different angle by not assuming that everyone else is happy and I am the oddball in the crowd if I am not having a good day.

We all struggle for various reasons, whether it is health problems, career disappointments, missed opportunities, lost loves, money worries, etc. Some people mask their problems better than others. This is why I like a quote I read once from a forgotten writer so much that I have it pasted on the printer on my desk:

You always have to look at everyone with kind eyes because there’s a war going on inside everyone.

Posted by: emmarose on January 4, 2008 at 12:23 AM | PERMALINK

Posted by: vorkosigan1 on January 3, 2008 at 11:09 PM

O yeah, another Bujold fan. *wave*

Posted by: Aaron on January 4, 2008 at 7:22 AM | PERMALINK

Positive Psychology:

There is some current research developing in this area. Rather than looking at what is wrong with people from a clinical point of view, Positive Psychology looks specifically at what aspects of life cultivate happiness.

There are many different ways people cultivate happiness intheir lives. Income, surprisingly enough, is not a significant determinant for most people. Beyond a sustainable living wage, money is not a factor in determining happiness. This does not include people living below the poverty line. People who spend their lives unsure of where the next meal will come from or where they will sleep tonight are generally unhappy (go figure). Beyond the poverty line, however, money no longer is a significant determinant of happiness.

In short, money (or wealth) buys security. It does not buy happiness.

Posted by: rawls on January 4, 2008 at 8:49 AM | PERMALINK

"married women spend less time alone, but more time doing tedious chores."

Not much more, actually. When I was single, I still had to keep the house clean, do laundry, etc. Plus I had to run the snowplow and lawnmower. Now my husband does that, and in return I have more cleaning, laundry, etc. But it's not much more arduous than doing it all for one. And I'm much, much happier!

As far as the "money = happiness" theory, I think money = more freedom, which can certainly bring more happiness. Or more misery, depending on what you do with it. I think loneliness and isolation are among the biggest contributors to unhappiness, and money doesn't help with either of those. (Cue the snarky comments about paid companionship...)

Posted by: sullijan on January 4, 2008 at 9:37 AM | PERMALINK

Yes money would make me happIER- About $250,000 would do the trick- I have a good job but it takes up time that I'd rather be doing something else or more important. I don't have money worries as long as I am working-

As for last night I'd prefer that you kept Bush- He's been great for the Canadian economy- Way to go Bushy!

But If I were an American I'd think Edwards would make me happy even though he didn't win-I think he understands the value of money and hard work-no silver spoon. Obama not enough experience and well Hilliary- well lets face it she's Hilliary- Depite your constitution is their anyway to sub in Bill?

Posted by: dave on January 4, 2008 at 11:14 AM | PERMALINK

Sorry "their" should have been "there"

I tend to type phonetically. . .

Posted by: dave on January 4, 2008 at 11:16 AM | PERMALINK
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