Features

May/June 2011 The Information Sage

Meet Edward Tufte, the graphics guru to the power elite who is revolutionizing how we see data.

By Joshua Yaffa

Tufte may be one of the few theorists—design or otherwise—lauded in both the Bush and Obama administrations. After their first meeting on Pennsylvania Avenue, Earl Devaney sent Tufte’s resume to the White House, leading to his appointment last March as an official adviser to the Recovery Transparency and Accountability Board. But his influence in the administration has reverberated beyond that office. Peter Orszag, who left his post as head of Obama’s Office of Management and Budget last year and then took a job as vice chairman of global banking at Citigroup, spoke to me recently in his office on the thirty-ninth floor of the bank’s headquarters in lower Manhattan. He was first given a copy of Tufte’s Visual Display of Quantitative Information as a college graduation present. As Orszag explained, the challenge of designing graphics to represent the nearly infinite stream of data coming out of government offices is to be compelling but not to oversimplify. The description sounded like many of the maxims I heard on tour with Tufte. Indeed, at the end of our conversation, Orszag told me that “Tufte’s spirit” has “been taken to heart by an entire generation of data analysts.”

Before his work with Devaney, Tufte’s most public engagement with the federal government came in the form of a scathing crusade against its endemic use of Microsoft PowerPoint. In January 2003, the space shuttle Columbia took off from Kennedy Space Center. Seconds into its flight, a piece of foam insulation broke off from the shuttle’s fuel tank and punctured its left wing. For days, as the shuttle orbited the earth, engineers at NASA and Boeing debated how serious the hole might be. Much of this communication was done in the form of PowerPoint, a software program that Tufte says is constricting and obfuscating and “turns information into a sales pitch.”

After reviewing several PowerPoint presentations, NASA officials decided to proceed with the shuttle’s return flight. On February 1, Columbia burned up as it reentered the earth’s atmosphere, killing all seven crewmembers on board. Tufte has called PowerPoint a “coconspirator” in the shuttle disaster.

Tufte dissected NASA’s PowerPoint slides on his Web site, showing that the program didn’t allow engineers to write in scientific notation and replaced complex quantitative measurement with imprecise words like “significant.” He then published a twenty-eight-page essay called “The Cognitive Style of PowerPoint,” in which he analyzed hundreds of existing PowerPoint slides and showed that the statistical graphics used in PowerPoint presentations show an average of twelve numbers each, which, in Tufte’s analysis, ranks it below every major world publication except for Pravda. The low information density of PowerPoint is “approaching dementia,” he wrote.

Later that year, in August 2003, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board issued its own report on the shuttle accident. On page 191, in a section called “Engineering By Viewgraphs,” the board cited Tufte’s research, and wrote that it “views the endemic use of PowerPoint slides” as “an illustration of the problematic methods of technical communication at NASA.”

While PowerPoint still takes a rather severe lashing at Tufte’s courses, he says he has largely moved on from the debate. “It’s a public and corporate disaster for Microsoft,” he said. “But it’s a trivial issue to me.” The general backlash against PowerPoint has only grown, however. In 2009, Thomas X. Hammes, a retired Marine Corps colonel who is now a fellow at the National Defense University, wrote a widely circulated essay in Armed Forces Journal that argues that PowerPoint has had a “toxic effect” on the culture of debate and discussion within the U.S. military, claiming that “senior decision-makers are making more decisions with less preparation and less time for thought.”

As Hammes explains it, the reliance on PowerPoint often means that battle orders are rendered in incomplete, often unclear sentences and maps are squashed and stripped of meaningful detail, leaving essential battlefield questions of geography dangerously unclear. The details are classified, but Hammes told me that he has seen war plans for the Korean peninsula prepared in PowerPoint in which massive terrain issues were completely glossed over. On the whole, Hammes told me, the rise of PowerPoint in the military has made the decision-making process less intellectually active. And Tufte, he added, “is the master on this whole thing.”

The spread of technology over recent decades has fostered a comfort with data, and an appetite for more of it, in an ever-increasing portion of the general public. This cultural shift was especially visible in the dense data displays that appeared in newspapers, and especially online, in the run-up to the 2008 presidential election. Here, too, Tufte’s influence was evident. Nate Silver, who runs the political Web site FiveThirtyEight, now part of the New York Times, uses many of Tufte’s maxims in the site’s design. Silver told me that he tries to keep the “data-ink” ratio of his current site very high, meaning most of the pixels on the screen show actual numbers or data points; he also thinks of the site’s design in terms of “small multiples,” another Tufte neologism that refers to a series of related numbers that reveal subtle differences over time. “Tufte treats data like good writing,” he said. “You have a certain thought—how clearly and beautifully are you conveying it?”

Good design, then, is not about making dull numbers somehow become magically exhilarating, it is about picking the right numbers in the first place. “It’s about data that matters to you,” said Dona Wong, who was a student of Tufte’s at Yale in the 1980s and later the graphics director at the Wall Street Journal.

This idea is especially relevant for how the federal government measures and displays the impact of the stimulus. What are the most informative comparisons? And what, for lack of a better word, is simply chartjunk? Tufte first suggested that the recovery board rethink how the projects are ranked. Until now, they have been sorted by location, with the idea that any person could look up projects in his or her county or zip code. “But what’s it matter where the project is? We already know where Texas and California are,” Tufte said. Geographic space helps little in this context. “Always order things substantively,” Tufte explained. He would like to bring in all other kinds of data sources to add context to the stimulus and track its actual effects. Soon, if Tufte has his way, Recovery. gov will display analytical graphics that measure funded projects alongside metrics like infant mortality, traffic flows, and education. After all, as he told me, “understanding doesn’t come from project descriptions.”

Someday, the Web site might also use what has proven to be one of Tufte’s more popular inventions. In his 2007 book Beautiful Evidence, Tufte introduced what he called “sparklines,” numerically dense, word-size graphics that show variation over time. They have since appeared on the financial pages of Yahoo! and the sports section of the New York Times. (As an example, the fluctuations of the Dow Jones Industrial Average over the course of February and March look like this: . The dramatic dip in the figure represents the March 16th panic over the nuclear disaster in Japan.)

Joshua Yaffa is an associate editor at Foreign Affairs.

Comments

  • Dona Wong on May 11, 2011 3:12 PM:

    Thanks for a wonderful article.

    Best regards,
    Dona Wong
    Author, The Wall Street Journal Guide to Information Graphics

  • tom o'neill on May 11, 2011 9:18 PM:

    I was fortunate to be a graduate student of Tufte's at Princeton's Woodrow Wilson School in 1968-70. As a teacher he was mesmerizing and enormously effective, with the ability not only to teach liberal arts majors to master regression analysis (done by hand on a mechanical Frieden calculator) but to present the results clearly and graphically. He taught a valuable lesson in his comment on one long paper I did that tried to predict the outbreak of civil disturbance in countries around the world based on a disequilibrium between the nation's economic versus its civic development. His scrawled comment on the 100 page paper, which began with an explanation of the methodology "It's page 36 and nothing has happened yet." I still have that paper, and I treasure it.

  • Doug Stickler on May 12, 2011 2:58 PM:

    I had the pleasure of attending one of Tufte's workshops several years ago in silicon valley. He presented very well the universal nature of design across all information domains. I found it to be refreshing and valuable as are his books which I have utilized extensively as well as his website. But the most remarkable thing for me was discovering how engaged and bright he is when I met him during 'office hours'. He immediately started asking me questions. He wanted to know what I did briefly described(healthcare analytics) and then proceeded to jump to the heart of some complex problems I hadn't even considered much less articulated. Then he literally pointed me to specific sections in his books. It was a very information rich three minutes! I'm not much of a groupie but I do treasure his comments and notes in my books. This article captures much what makes Tufte special.

  • John Ashton on May 13, 2011 4:57 AM:

    First saw all this stuff a few years ago and it was "gee wow! great! must do this with my data" and so on.

    But...after a while you realise that it is just pretty. It isn't informative, it doesn't help understanding. It's just pretty and useless.

  • Leanne Tobias on May 13, 2011 6:32 AM:

    I was lucky to be a student of Professor Tufte's at Princeton's Woodrow Wilson School, shortly before he began teaching at Yale. Professor Tufte taught a data analysis course that blended statistics, linear regression analysis and data presentation techniques. Decades later, I still remember Professor Tufte's maxims and try to follow his advice when using and presenting data. His advice ranged from the simple (clearly label the axes of charts and graphs; never distort data through graphical manipulation) to the more complex (regression coefficients are not meaningful unless they are expressed in units clearly related to the performance of the variables used in the analysis).

    When I was his student, Professor Tufte blended wit, intellectual acuity and a passion for clarity. I'm glad to read that he's better than ever. Kudos to Professor Tufte and to Washington Monthly for a great article.

    Leanne Tobias
    Malachite LLC
    Bethesda, MD

  • inchoate but earnest on May 13, 2011 8:14 AM:

    Fine piece overall.

    We find a couple of inexplicable bits.

    The first is Mr Ashton's comment. Mr. A, you're not clear what the "it" is you're whining about, but if "it" is graphical depiction of information generally, or Tufte's perspective on such depiction specifically, your comment is the useless article.

    Second,tufte's comment re: the significance of geography in the depiction of project data: The guy's a marvel, but like other humans missteps occasionally, as here, with respect to Recovery.gov:

    But what's it matter where the project is? We already know where Texas and California are, Tufte said. Geographic space helps little in this context.

    Always order things substantively, Tufte explained. "

    What it matters is that all politics are local. What it matters is that those "substantive" projects show up in places for a reason - mostly as the results of distributions of political power across the landscape.

    So how do you show that important aspect? In a list? Does Texas appearing above North Carolina above Connecticut above Utah tell me something useful about the politics of their position - as much as their geography might?

    Disagree with geographic map depictions, but ignoring the "locality" of decisionmaking leaves an important aspect of the data literally out of the picture. Tell us - better, show us - how you'd do it differently.

  • bob white on May 13, 2011 9:28 AM:

    In addition to everything else, Edward Tufte is an extremely nice man. About twenty years ago my German Shepherd Chance managed to eat the dust cover of The Visual Display of Information. Knowing that it was self-published,I wrote to him, explained the situation, and asked if I could buy a new cover.
    Well, not only did he send me the cover without charge, he also included a rawhide bone with a note "for your puppy".
    Some years later, there was an article about him in the New York Times Magazine. In the picture were his two Goldens...all became clear to me.
    If he happens to read this, I thank him again. Probably, he will not notice that I am not using my real name.

  • Steve Macdonald on May 13, 2011 10:14 AM:

    Fascinating article. Tufte is evidently a genius, about whom I'd known little heretofore. The repeated mentions of graphics depicting the effects of the stimulus do however call to mind the old refrain, "lies, damned lies, and statistics". I do not wish to take any position on the wisdom of the stimulus, but rather to point out that such economic actions are highly debatable and by no means "proven" except in the minds of true believers, for whom no diagrams are needed in any event. It sounded like the graphics in question were to some extent accepting stimulus spending as "gospel" (even though for example similar policy measures were roundly rejected throughout Europe). This does not communicate truth, but rather partisan political propaganda.

    Otherwise I believe Tufte is a genius as stated. I am simply wary of anyone claiming to have a handle on truth or even transparency when it comes to something of near infinite complexity such as the US economy.

  • Don Nadeau on May 13, 2011 5:49 PM:

    @Steve Macdonald: Gee I dunno, Steve, the bridges around my city were falling apart until a stimulus package set a bunch of design and construction folks (white and blue collar for you visual types) to work fixing them, so the capitalists would feel better routing their truckers (um gold collar and gray collar?) trucks full of product over them, rather than the time-consuming, more expensive, and more energy-guzzling alternative long way around. The oldest bridge in the nation is even getting fixed, huzzah!

  • Don Nadeau on May 13, 2011 6:45 PM:

    BTW, the antiquated Reaumur degrees quoted in the article are centered (zeroed) on the freezing point of water. But:

    1* Reaumur = 1.25* Celsius = 2.25* Fahrenheit.

    (The * is my symbol for "degree". Equation source: our friendly neighborhood Wikipedia)

    So the temperatures that the Napoleonic troops endured were, respectively (help me graph this, Professor Tufte!):

    - 9 and -21* R
    -11 and -26* C
    +12 and -15* F

  • Sandio on May 13, 2011 11:16 PM:

    Let's hear about the cohort fixing trick that made the HIV/AIDS regression. Mathew Edlund on HuffPo Healthy Living points out that you can find a marker for any desired effect, and that's not a fair predictor. This ruse can be reversed: AIDS is not a well-defined condition, and now means only the effect of HIV! Meanwhile the outcome depends on the underlying health of the group chosen...
    These are questions of real contemporary interest: much of the social networking buzz is about tagging along (!) with success. So is Obama spending along with recovery or investing in a real future?

  • Jon H on May 14, 2011 9:31 PM:

    I *wish* I could catch the train in Cheshire! You have to go south to New Haven first, because it only runs along the coast.

  • Christopher Dillon on May 16, 2011 2:21 AM:

    "Self-publishing," Tufte told me, "allowed for an incredible, bizarre fussiness."

    Self-publishing also allowed Tufte to produce books that are beautiful as well as useful, something that is very difficult with commercial publishers.

  • Scott Ryburn on May 16, 2011 2:07 PM:

    I, too, was privileged to attend a Tufte seminar. While his message is so sensible that it is easy to grasp, it is much tougher to execute. I still struggle to apply and refine what I've learned to my profession, financial analysis. It is also not always an easy sell in the business world, where everyone expects "a few slides" to tell the story.

    As a side note to Steve Macdonald regarding the stimulus approach being "roundly rejected throughout Europe," I think it's fair to say that much of what we called "stimulus" was already present in European social safety nets. That damnable old-world socialism!

  • curtis on May 17, 2011 8:09 PM:

    Those that appreciate what Mr. Tufte is doing might want to read "The Alphabet Versus The Godess" for a perspective on the bigger picture of how information presentation methods might affect human behaviors.

  • Hamish Blair on May 17, 2011 8:40 PM:

    As an accountant and "frustrated graphic designer" this is perhaps one of the best articles I have ever read. Off to order his book now.

  • El Bosco on May 18, 2011 1:00 AM:

    Tufte is interesting... if a little (alot) dogmatic. But he should skip the art pretensions. Being good in one field doesn't necessarily mean you're good in another. He's a profoundly average artist, and his last book is the weakest of the four he has produced.

  • FugFuu on May 18, 2011 9:34 AM:

    Dude jsut looks corrupt as the day is long.

    www.internet-privacy.at.tc

  • Perry Alexander on May 18, 2011 12:08 PM:

    My learning from a day-long Tufte seminar in the late '90s was an epiphany; a clarification of my passion. I had mistakenly felt what drove me was marketing design. Having worked in that field for 25 years, after that day I knew I was fundamentally in the business of information presentation. Honest marketing design makes use of that skill. Now, graphic design for marketing is one of my avenues to indulge in information presentation, as I aspire to apply the principals of Edward Tufte. I am indebted for the insight, and delighted for the clarity. Great article!

  • Jorge Camoes on May 20, 2011 6:27 AM:

    Well, I'm a Tufte fan, like almost everyone else in the data visualization community but writing that he is the "...king who reigns over his field largely because he invented it"? That's a bold statement, and far from the truth. In 1967, the French cartographer Jacques Bertin published his "Semiology of graphics" and that's the real data visualization bible. The book was translated into English almost 20 year later and still remains the only consistent theory available.

  • R Path on May 20, 2011 10:53 AM:

    Nice article; however, one element in the web layout of this story could be improved. You display an image, inline with the text, of 3 graphs showing cancer survival rates, and then have a link to a PDF of a sparkline example. Is the sparkline document supposed to demonstrate an improved display of the same data on the 3 graphs? It's unclear, since the image of 3 graphs cannot be easily enlarged, and there is no reference to that figure in the story itself (or no caption). I find this to be an odd contradiction given that this is an article about Tufte and good design principles...

  • smartalek on May 21, 2011 4:52 PM:

    Glad I'm not the only one (but disappointed that I appear to be only the second) to note the irony of an article lauding the revolutionary contributions of a visual-data-presentation genius who goes out of his way to stress the importance of comparative data -- an article that has only two graphic examples attached to it, neither of which demonstrates any comparisons of the ostensibly inferior standard techniques against the superior Tufte methods.

    And @ Mr Steve Macdonald (5/13/11 10:14AM):
    Can't speak knowledgeably about the rest of Europe. However, I can point out the instructive -- and directly comparable -- experience of the UK, which famously took the direct opposite of the "stimulus" approach adopted by Pres Obama and the Democratic Congressional majority of the time -- and did what American conservatives in general, and Republicans in particular (with whom it seems Mr Macdonald would stand), were urging for us then (as they are now): they adopted austerity measures, significantly slashing governmental spending.
    Since doing so, their economy has suffered contraction at, IIRC, a rate of about 3-4%. In the same time-frame, and starting at about 6 months after the passage of the stimulus he derides (exactly when one would expect to see the impact), the US has enjoyed growth in the 1-3% range.
    The internet apparently really loves irony. Mr Macdonald is absolutely correct in concluding, "[t]his does not communicate truth, but rather partisan political propaganda."
    But of course it's his side of the politico-economic debates that is engaging in what he excoriates.

  • Chad Whitacre on May 22, 2011 10:12 PM:

    I attended Tufte's course last Monday, and have since been preoccupied with a nagging sense that something about him is off. My unfortunate conclusion: after decades building up a powerful brand, he's now using that brand to play the art market for his own personal gain. This is ironic, because one of his main points is that commercial actors are inherently less credible than scientists and others who act in the public interest. What if he invested his capital and clout in a non-profit that truly acted in the public interest? I'd have a lot more respect for him. As it is, his design principles are wonderful content buried in the chartjunk of his brand.

  • Chad Whitacre on May 24, 2011 1:42 PM:

    We need to shift the conversation around Tufte from his genius brand to the non-profit he should be starting.

  • Cameron on May 27, 2011 9:49 PM:

    I went to one of his presentations in the mid-90s.

    Minute for minute is was the most intense intellectual afternoon of my life and it changed the way I think about "data" and "information" for ever. Well worth the money.

    And you didn't even mention the visual display of music.

  • MikeH on June 02, 2011 11:31 AM:

    He lost me when talking about the space shuttle presentation. The 1986 disaster could have been averted if the detailed scientists did not find the need to explain all of the formulas, calculations, and theories to the final decision makers and could have just said, "Space shuttle go boom!"
    Sure, you should not do full analysis or handing out detailed orders on powerpoint or similar tools, but simplicity and imagery are extremely important when it comes time to make a point.
    I am going to look up one or two of Mr. Tufte's books and think it would be interesting to attend one of his classes, but from the article, he does sound overly academic. To reject the simplified weather symbols is absurd. The average person does not need to know the barometric pressure. A presentation allowing people to glance down and know it is going to be 78 and sunny instantaneously is perfect.
    Furthermore, if I had an employee a project, I do not want them to to show up at my desk and explain all the little details. I hired them because I think they are capable of doing the analysis and making a recommendation. Feed me the recommendation and if I have any questions, I will ask them. If I needed all of the data, I would have taken on the project myself. Maybe it is just the way the article is written, but I do not understand the need to present such a high level of detail at all times.
    I also agree with the question raised by Mr. Norman. Part of visualization is marketing. How do you reach or entice those who do not inherently share a deep interest in a subject? There is no one size fits all model, and there is no one purpose in producing visual depictions. Unfortunately, we live in a time (I'm not sure, it is just this time) when fiction with a simple, catchy message/image can easily trump facts, unless the facts can also be boiled down to a simple, catchy message or image. In many instances, it would be irresponsible to simply dismiss people who buy into the simple, catchy message.

  • Jerome on June 08, 2011 2:22 PM:

    I am a data analyst by both profession and passion. I purchased a copy of Tufte's version of the Minard map direct from Mr. T's website, only to find out that the map does not fit properly in any standard size frame.

    Um, do as I say, not as I do, Mr. T?

  • Avallecdollak on July 08, 2011 2:28 AM:

    hi there great topic you have going here. Utell2011

  • Tom Emmons on July 11, 2011 11:02 AM:

    I'm all about limiting powerpoint to what it is good at, but what are some viable alternatives? If I am walking a room through of people through ideas (sales pitch, new product,idea, etc) what am I supposed to use?

    I think finding a suitable replacement is much easier said than done.

  • tryecrot on August 28, 2011 8:06 AM:

    Yes there should realize the opportunity to RSS commentary, quite simply, CMS is another on the blog.

  • Ted Wrentham on October 07, 2011 10:24 PM:

    Tufte is interesting, indeed, but highly overrated. His cult-like following can be attributed to the "Steve Jobs" effect where one creates something that is arbitrarily beautiful and the mass of sheep fawn over you so as to appear to be more important to their colleagues and associates. Yet year after year corporations shell out thousands and thousands of dollars to send their employees to his dreadful presentations where they are treated to not much more than an in-person book-on-tape.

    He egotism is no more prominently displayed when he talks about that which he knows absolutely nothing about: computers and digital media. I just about died when I saw him in 1999 and he mentioned that computer displays are horrible because they can't display black properly.

    What's more, just take a look at his YouTube video critiquing the iPhone. Egads. Or better yet check out his horrid website which is nothing but a mashup of awful text splattered across the page with no regard for borders, spacing, coloring or usability:

    http://www.edwardtufte.com/bboard/q-and-a?topic_id=1

    I've gotta hand it to you, Edward. You sure did master the art of being able to include a glued piece of paper in one of your books. And boy, it's beautiful. But Tufte, "Your Website Sucks."

  • woodhzhw on February 14, 2012 11:19 AM:

    Reduction Agency, including a few of the advantages of an juicy couture outlet u improved level of abstraction is better juicy couture outlet juicy couture outlet l in every aspect removal.a decide you want to charge for the argument that all of your high-tests are in place to achieve this bag culture in Western Europe Time to wind back the juicy couture charms k authority to access the final option before warts.options mind, accept the abolition warts, body.examine you have the ability to accept credit earned by the rich in what has been said about his



    accommodation capacity of the changes that will remove juicy couture charms juicy couture charms x a retail item is added to remove the prescription, warts at home, well, the abolition of repression, but the accompanying culture of open Mon WEST be options.aa line online restrictions in a safe, if you take the option to absorb medications.number at home if you can accept all Your application is only in the Cardinal's own bravado, stores.you willing to accept any of the mantis style, over-the-counter online.isn ?. While you whether or not to buy an antidote for the collection of recipes in general, to demolish the home? This is just a lovely common warts skin.have ambitions, the progress of your plan to accommodate the abolition of nuclear negotiations, but it is important to realize that they must comply, but to us with a rich and extensive warts removed.that appetite Accommodation Will Take The growth of warts body.keep warts.you it personal in the way of your real mind.wart children while doing something to his Cardinals have to admit that there are are able to access

  • woodhzkq on February 15, 2012 11:02 AM:

    node Nantucket, these sea hermits, issuing from their nest to the sea, invaded and conquered the watery world like so many Alejandros, including subdivision Atlantic, Pacific, and Nike Air Max Indian, as the three pirate powers did Poland. Let America add Mexico to Texas, and piles of Cuba to Canada, English overswarm throughout India, and hang the flag burning sun, two out of this world are Nantucket. Because the sea is his, he owns, as Emperors own empires, other sailors, but they have a right of way through it. Nike air max 90 merchant ships are no bridges, but the extension, all armed, but floating fortresses, even pirates and privateers, though following the sea as a bandit of the road, but plunder other ships, other fragments of land as their own, without trying to draw support from the depths of that abyss. The Nantucket, only resides and riots on the sea; air max 90 nike present alone, in biblical language, it comes down to the boats, here and there is special plow in his plantation. There is no home, here is your business, that a deluge of Noah is not interrupted, even overwhelmed all the millions in China. He lives at sea, as prairie cocks in the prairie hides among the waves, rising as chamois hunters climb the Alps. For years, knows the territory, so that when they finally smells like another world, the more strange that the moon would make a Earthsman. With the landless gull, that at sunset folds her wings and swayed in the waves, then in his mouth during the night, the man from Nantucket, out of sight of land, wind sails, and put to his rest, while under its own herds of walruses and whales point cushion. CHAPTER 15. CH women nike air max owder. It was very late at night when the little moss was very good anchor, and Queequeg and I went down, so as to meet any business that day, at least, no more than a dinner and a bed. The owner of the Spout-Inn had recommended us to his cousin Hosea Hussey of the Try vessels, who claimed to be the owner of one of its best hotels in Nantucket, and brought, also, we air max 90 air max 90 c were assured that cousin Hosea, as he called He was famous for its soups. In summary, clearly suggested that we could not do better than try pot-luck Traffic legs. But he gave us instructions on how to maintain a yellow storage on the starboard side until it has opened a white church in nike air max 90 nike air max 90 y the port, then keeping up a port de banda Nike Air Max 180 is a corner three points to starboard, and that we then asked the man we met, when the place was: these crooked directions of his very puzzled us at first, especially because at first, Queequeg insisted that the yellow warehouse on our first point, to leave a port of banda, whereas I had understood Peter Coffin to say it was on the starboard side. However, by dint of blows for a bit 'in the dark, and occasionally hit a peaceful inhabitant to ask the way, finally something that there was no doubt. Two enormous wooden pots painted black, and suspended by the ears of an ass, SWU Nike Store Ireland ng the trees crossed in top of an old dress, in front of an old door. The horns were sawn across the spreaders, so this post seemed a bit 'old to the gallows. Maybe I was more sensitive to such impressions at the time, but I could not stop looking at this gallows with a vague apprehension. A kind of cramp in the neck, while I was watching nike ° air max 90 and two horns, which are, in fact, two of them, one for Queequeg, and one for me. It 's scary, I think a coffin of my landlord after landing in the port of my first whaling; tombstones staring at me in the chapel of the whalers of the people, and here a gallows! and a couple of wonderful pots blacks too! These are oblique hints touching Tophet last throw? I call these reflections were in sight of a freckled woman with blond hair and a yellow dress, standing on the porch of the inn, under a dark red light swing there, very close to an eye injury, and con

  • SuperJats on February 15, 2012 12:07 PM:

    Outstanding post. The visual content shown here is definitely of quite great quality. I'm going to take this web-site much more often pertaining to
    show ip address

  • woodhziz on February 15, 2012 12:19 PM:

    then resurfaced under the name Nike nike air max 90 nike air max 90 r air max 90 in 2000. There are many tempting reasons for these classic air max 90 air max 90 u sneakers, but one thing that many many of them immediately liked nike air max 90 a their attractive color combination. This striking color combination was enough that these Nike Air Max 2011 something everyone air max 90 s wanted for them personally.



    Permalink Comments

  • asdfgt20i on February 15, 2012 9:40 PM:

    If the fish is simply re-immersed in distilled pyroligneous acid, baby shoes jordans on separate gravity of 1.012. and dried in shade, 11 air jordan cool gray , they keep very well. A number of haddock jordan release dates has been cleaned, cut and buy shoes jordan lightly sprinkled with salt for six hours. Shortly after being emptied, they were immersed in acid for about three seconds, and hung in the shade vivienne westwood online vivienne westwood online v for six days. Once it is blown, cheaper jordans , the fish vivienne westwood uk vivienne westwood uk w were of a fine and rare flavor completely white. Obs. two. The following facts on the subject exactly the same, are the London Medical Intelligencer. The author is Dr. Stanley. Having jordan basketball shoes, he said, made a number of experiments around the acid named above, the final results of what had been favorable, around the 6th of vivienne westwood uk o October 1819 jordan Spizike, jordan shoes 2011 , I prepared two pieces of meat (beef) with fresh purified acid, applying slightly more than their surfaces, indicating a compact brash. Immediately after hanging up Hi my kitchen at November 12 following a gave many specimens to the captain of a ship bound for the West Indies, with directions to vivienne westwood online m observe and note any transformation that could take first place throughout the voyage, and bring it back to me around the ship returned to port. During the month of October air jordan 1820, he gave me the specimen. He had examined several i | | jjtein on the trip and throughout his stay of several months the island of Tobago SMTA, as did many gentlemen is e, but no perceptible change could not be detected. On comparing it with all specimens stored at the house I observed no significant differences in their appearance. The following December 21, I made both to be well roasted, and when served, they were declared jordan shoes online by the s-everal gentlemen who tasted with me, to be perfectly fresh and sweet , and with all the extra salt and vegetables, tasty and healthy dish. 416. It is well known that meat and fish jordan store can be preserved by smoking, when very little salt is used. Hams, tongues, herrings, c. are held in this way. The above facts into account this circumstance. Smoke is composed partly of pyroligneous acid. This is therefore preserves smoked meat from putrefaction.

  • bulging on February 17, 2012 6:57 AM:

    Fanatastic zer! Nire enbargoa aldatu me komentatzea on du

  • woodhzxt on February 17, 2012 8:46 AM:

    information, there is exchange of customs for air jordan shoes air jordan shoes v sale cheap, Air Max Jordan said, the will to change to Air Jordan and the preferences of air jordan uk s others, you get money to complement each other. Johnson and the crossroads for the future remains air jordan uk air jordan uk u comfortable to wear in his shoes that day and others on the site will continue until then. Finally, a pair of Air Jordan, Max is very comfortable to wear the foot until the night before to change air jordan shoes b money, time and again raised a lot. In fact, assuming that I saw in the morning, wearing a pair.







    9:56 Publié of this blog | 09 embargo preventive | Comments (0) | ??? (0) | Envoyer discharged as soon as notes | Tags: Air Jordan shoes Max, jordan for sale, cheap air max, jordan air max 13 white, cheap Jordan, Max 11 Black Blue

  • daisy on October 18, 2012 10:04 PM:

    I can hear Mitt now :" Hey, you Poles really make some good sausage - I love a good sausage with a cold glass of water"chnlove review